#33 Fighting Over Land in The West: Nancy Langston - How Do We Fix It?

The armed occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in the dry prairies of Southeast Oregon by members a small militia group is the most recent chapter in the very long-running dispute over land in The West. 

Our guest is environmental historian Nancy Langston, author of Where Land and Water Meet. A Western Landscape Transformed.”  

In some western states the Federal Government owns more than half the land.  This set the stage for impassioned arguments between ranchers, conservationists, corporate interests, local communities and native American tribes.  All have a role to play.

As for the seizure of government property, "there is very, very little local support for the militia's tactics for this kind of violent anarchy," Nancy Langton told us on this episode.

"They have nothing to do with this region and I don"t think there are many local ranchers or anybody else in the community who approve of their methods."

But there is considerable support for changing the way federal lands are managed and giving local interests a greater role.  Some believe that land should be turned over to state and local control.  Langston says collaboration and respect for different interests are the only ways to solve the disputes.  We examine the arguments in this "Fix It" episode and suggest solutions.

The Malheur example is more important than the case of the Hammonds, the two Harney County ranchers who were sent back to prison.  The argument is part of a national debate over increasing federal government power, especially during the past 40 years,  since new environmental regulations were established by  the Nixon Administration.

The occupiers claimed that government discriminated against local ranchers, who use federal land for cattle grazing.  Is there merit to their argument, or do ranchers get over-generous subsidies from taxpayers to raise livestock on the public's land? 

#25 Climate Change: Turning CO2 Into Rock: Peter Kelemen: How Do We Fix It?

The demand for energy around the world continues to grow each year.  And so does the amount of carbon dioxide that's pumped into the earth's atmosphere. 

What happens if the world fails to bring down CO2 emissions in the coming decades?  What if all the treaties and negotiations over climate change don't succeed in reducing the threat of global warming?

Our guest is Peter Kelemen, Chair of Columbia University's Earth and Environmental Sciences Department and Arthur B. Storke Professor of Geochemistry. Last year, Peter was inducted into the National Academy of Sciences. 

His research on carbon capture and storage may offer one exciting solution to a global crisis.  Our show looks at a tool that could fight climate change by taking carbon dioxide and literally locking it up in the earth's crust, right under our feet.  

Geology research could be used to find new ways to suck up carbon and keep it out of the atmosphere, harnessing a natural process and using some of the fracking techniques now common in oil and gas drilling.  We look at the costs as well as the potential offered by this form of breakthrough scientific research. 

#21 Climate Shock: Global Warming Threat with Gernot Wagner. How Do We Fix It?

If you had a 10% of facing a flood or getting into a fatal car accident, you'd make sure you bought first-rate insurance coverage.  That's what our guest Gernot Wagner says we should do about climate change. 

Science tells us that if we do nothing, there is the risk of a global catastrophe.  We hear the argument for climate insurance. Gernot is the co-author of "Climate Shock - The Economic Consequences of a Hotter Planet," and lead senior scientist at the Environmental Defense Fund.

Even if climate skeptics are right and the risk of global warming is small,  that does not eliminate the need to plan for an extreme emergency.  Gernot Wagner makes the case for pricing carbon as a way of boosting the incentives for energy efficiency. "Unless we act, we will experience major disruptions. We already are experiencing them," says Gernot.  Our interview also looks the revolution in solar energy and ocean damage caused by rising levels of carbon dioxide.

For more information on what you can do to help: https://www.edf.org/action